WHAT IS DIABETES MELLITUS?
Diabetes is a disease in which the body doesn't produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. Insulin is needed to turn sugar and other food into energy. When you have Diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use its own insulin as well as it should, or both. This causes sugars to build up too high in your blood.
Diabetes mellitus is defined as a fasting blood glucose of 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or more. “Pre-diabetes” is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet diabetic. People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 Diabetes, heart disease and stroke, and have one of these conditions:
- impaired fasting glucose (100 to 125 mg/dL)
- impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose less than 126 mg/dL and a glucose level between 140 and 199 mg/dL two hours after taking an oral glucose tolerance test)
1. The characteristics of a typical case of Diabetes mellitus are often polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria and loss of body weight. Early or asymptomatic patients only show abnormal release of cortical hormone and insuline inside the body. The level of fasting blood sugar is elevated with abnormal glucose tolerance test. Symptomatic patients are frequently complicated by other symptoms of dermal, neural and endocrinous disorders, besides polyphogia, polyuria and loss of body weight.
2. The main complications and concomitant diseases of Diabetes mellitus are diabetic ketoacidosis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetic renopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Cardiovascular complications are the chief causes of death.
3. Diabetes mellitus is classified into juvenile and adult types according to the clinical features. The age of onset of the juvenile type is young and has a tendency to inheritance. Blood sugar fluctuates widely and is quite sensitive to insulin. Threatment is difficult and it is often named insulin-depending diabetes or unstabl Diabetes . The age of onset of adult type is above 40. This type is relatively mild and can be controlled by dietary restriction or oral antidiabetics. Therefore it is also named non- insulin depending diabetes or stable diabetes.
4. Accessory examination
a) Fasting blood-glucose is higher than 130 mg. Blood glucose after meal is more than 160-180 mg. Urine is positive for glucose. If complicated by ketosis, urine is positive for ketone bodies.
b) Glucose tolerance test can be used to diagnose early or suspected cases and is the principle test in diagnosis.
c) New diagnostic techniques such as testing blood insulin levels are quite helpful in understanding the pathological changes of pancreas and in obtaining information concerning treatment.
TYPES OF SYNDROMES
1. Dryness-heat in the Lung and Stomach Main Symptoms : Restlessness, polydipsia, polyphagia with tendency to hunger, dryness of the mouth and tongue, polyuria, red tongue with yellowish fur, slippery and rapid pulse.
2. Deficiency of the Kidney Main Symptoms : Polyuria with turbid discharge, soreness and debility of the lumbus, dryness of the mouth and tongue, dyshopria with feverish sensation in the chest, palms and soles, red tongue, deep, thready and rapid pulse.
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